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Jesus the Messiah in the Hebrew Bible

   
Eugen J. Pentiuc

“I have tried to shift away from conventional paradigms to develop a new way of understanding the presence of Christ in the Old Testament. I call this approach ontological, and I emphasize that it is distinct from royal messianism and other scholarly conventions of analysis. The ontological approach is based on the view that Jesus the Messiah was preexistent, and that he appeared in manifold forms throughout the Hebrew Bible prior to his human incarnation in the New Testament.”
—“Preface”

CONTENTS

   Abbreviations
   Preface
Part A
The Fallen Messiah
   I. Three Steps in Fashioning Humanity
      1. The First Step: Humanity as a Reflection, or Image, of the Triune God
         (1) Unity in Diversity (Gen 1:26–27)
         (2) God’s Living Breath (Gen 2:7)
      2. The Second Step: Reshaping the Face of Humanity
         (1) A Help like Humanity’s Opposite (Gen 2:18)
         (2) Playing God (Gen 2:19–20)
         (3) A Help from Inside Humanity (Gen 2:21–22)
         (4) Man’s Identity (Gen 2:23)
      3. The Third Step: Humanity’s Unity Regained
         Made One for Another (Gen 2:24)
         Notes
   II. Swinging between Life and Power
      1. God’s Enticement
         (1) A Garden, a Steppe, and Chaos (Gen 2:8)
         (2) “The tree of life in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil...” (Gen 2:9)
      2. Mixed Feelings
         (1) Happiness and Insecurity in the Garden (Gen 2:15–17)
         (2) The Serpent’s Guile (Gen 3:1)
      3. The Fall of Humanity
         (1) A Preamble to Sin: Eve’s Three Mistakes (Gen 3:2–3)
            a. Entering into Dialogue with the Serpent (Gen 3:1–2)
            b. Creating Her Own Universe (Gen 3:3a)
            c. Defending God (Gen 3:3b)
         (2) Original Sin (Gen 2–3)
         Notes
   III. Humanity’s Fate Revealed (Gen 3:15)
      1. Harassment between Serpent and Humanity
      2. The Seed of the Woman: Another Chance
         Notes
Part B
The Rising Messiah
   I. The Preexistence of Messiah
      1. Within the Godhead
         (1) Poured Out as a Libation (Prov 8:23; Ps 2:6 [LXX and pre-MT])
         (2) Acquired by God (Prov 8:22 [MT])
         (3) Brought Forth in Labors (Prov 8:24)
         (4) A Source of Delight for God (Prov 8:30b)//Matt 3:17)
         (5) God’s Partners in Dialogue (Gen 1:26–27; Isa 9:5; Zech 13:7; Ps 110:1; Prov 8:30a)
            a. Messiah: A “Wonder-Counselor” or an “Angel of a Great Council”
            b. The Man: God’s Fellow
            c. Melchizedek: Co-regent with God
            d. Wisdom: God’s Confidant
         (6) “Son of Man” or “Son of Weakness” (Dan 7:13–14//John 3:13; 5:27; 6:27, 53, 62; Matt 24:30; 26:64; 25:31; Acts 7:56; Rev 1:13; 14:14)
      2. God’s Propensities toward Incarnation
         (1) The “Angel of Yahweh” (Gen 32:25, 27; Hos 12:4–5 [Eng. 3–4]; Exod 3:2–4; Josh 5:13–15; Judg 2:1–5; 13:17–20)
         Other Occurences of the “Angel of Yahweh”
         (2) Yahweh, a Name for All Seasons (Exod 3:13–15)
         (3) Two Yahwehs? (Gen 18:33; 19:1, 24; cf. Exod 34:5–6; Ps 22:2 [Eng. 22:1])
         (4) Walking To and Fro (Gen 5:21–24; 6:9; 24:40)
         (5) The Tabernacling Glory (Exod 33:18–23; Num 12:8a; Isa 6:1–3//John 1:14)
         (6) Vibrant Silence: From Thunder to a Soft Whisper (1 Kgs 19:11–12; cf. Exod 19:16, 18–19)
         (7) The Occurence of God’s Word (Hos 1:1; et passim in prophetic books)
         (8) Melchizedek (Gen 14:17–24; Ps 110:4//Heb 7:1–3)
         Notes
   II. The Birth of Messiah
      1. The Mother of Messiah
         (1) The Woman (Gen 3:15)
         (2) The Royal Consort (Ps 45:8–10)
         (3) The Veiled One (Isa 7:14//Matt 1:18, 22–23; Luke 1:26–27, 30–31)
      2. Virginal Conception and Birth
      (Isa 7:14 [LXX]; Ezek 44:1–3; Jer 31:22; Exod 3:2; Isa 49:1, 5//Luke 1:34–35)
      3. Time of Birth
      (Gen 49:10; Num 24:17; Dan 9:24–27; Mal 3:1; Hag 2:6–9; Ps 118:25–27)
      4. Place of Birth and Other Places in Christ’s Itinerary
      (Mic 5:1; [Eng. 5:2]; Isa 8:23–9:1; 11:1; Hos 11:1)
         Bethlehem
         Nazareth
         Galilee
         Egypt
      5. The Forerunner of Messiah’s Birth
      (Isa 40:3; Mal 3:1)
      6. The Lineage of Messiah (Son of Man: Dan 7:13–14; of Shem: Gen 9:25–27; of Abraham: Gen 12:1–3; of Isaac: Gen 26:4–5; of Judah: Gen 49:10; of Jesse: Isa 11:1; of David: 2 Sam 7:16)
         Son of Man
         Son of Shem
         Son of Abraham
         Son of Isaac
         Son of Judah
         Son of Jesse
         Son of David
         Notes
   III. The Suffering, Death, and Resurrection of Messiah
      1. The Betrayal
         (1) Betrayer’s Profile (Ps 41:10 [Eng. 41:9]; 55:13–15 [Eng. 55:12–14])
            a. Colleague
            b. Trusted One
            c. Meal Sharer
            d. Despiser
            e. Co-equal
            f. Compatriot
            g. Confidant
            h. Participant in a Secret Gathering
         (2) Sold for Thirty Pieces of Silver (Zech 11:12–13//Matt 26:15–16; 27:3–10)
      2. The Passion
         (1) Forsaken by His Disciples (Zech 13:7//Mark 14:27)
         (2) Accused by Fanatic Witnesses (Ps 35:11–12; 109:2; 38:13–15 [Eng. 38:12–14]; 39:2; Isa 53:7//Matt 26:59–60; 27:12, 14; 1 Pet 2:23)
         (3) Smitten with a Rod upon His Cheek (Mic 4:14 [Eng. 5:1]; Isa 50:6a//Matt 26:67–68; 27:30)
         (4) Spat Upon (Isa 50:6b//Matt 26:67a; 27:30a)
         (5) Pierced in Hands and Feet (Ps 22:17 [Eng. 22:16]//John 20:25)
         (6) Crucified with Thieves (Isa 53:9, 12//Mark 15:27, 28; Luke 22:37; 23:39–43)
         (7) He Prayed for His Persecutors (Ps 109:4–5; Isa 53:12//Luke 23:34; cf. Acts 7:59)
         (8) He Became the Object of Ridicule (Ps 109:25; 22:7, 8, 13 [Eng. 22:6, 7, 12]; Isa 52:14; 53:2–3//Matt 27:39; Luke 23:35)
         (9) His Garments Were Gambled for (Ps 22:19 [Eng. 22:18]//John 19:23, 24)
         (10) Abandoned by God (Ps 22:2 [Eng. 22:1]; Isa 49:14; 54:7–8//Matt 27:46; Mark 15:34–35)
         (11) He Agonized with Thirst (Ps 22:16 [Eng. 22:15]; 69:3, 21//John 19:28; Matt 27:34, 48)
         (12) He Entrusted His Spirit to God (Ps 22:21 [Eng. 22:20]; 31:6//Matt 27:43; Luke 23:46; Acts 7:59)
         (13) His Friends Stood Afar Off (Ps 38:12; 88:8; Isa 63:3//Luke 23:49)
         (14) They Did Not Break His Bones (Ps 22:18 [Eng. 22:17]; 34:20–21 [Eng. 34:19–20]; Exod 12:46; Num 9:12//John 19:36)
         (15) He Was Pierced between His Hands (Zech 12:10; 13:1, 6//John 20:25–27; cf. 19:34; Rev 1:7)
         (16) Darkness over the Whole Earth (Amos 8:9; Ps 22:3 [Eng. 22:1]//Matt 27:45)
      3. The Death
         (1) He Died a Voluntary, Substitutionary Death (Isa 53:5, 6, 11, 12; 50:6; Dan 9:26//John 10:11, 18; Matt 20:28; 1 Cor 15:3; Gal 2:20; Heb 1:3; 1 Pet 2:24; Rev 1:5)
         (2) He Was Buried with the Rich (Isa 53:9//Matt 27:57–61)
      4. The Resurrection
         The Third-Day Resurrection and the “Sign of Jonah” (Hos 6:1–3; Jonah 1:17//Matt 12:39–40; 1 Pet 3:18–20)
         Notes
   Bibliography

Item Number: BKPP663
Publication Data: New York, NY/Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 2006
Format: softcover
Number of Pages: xviii + 188
Dimensions (l × w × h): 22.4 cm × 15.3 cm × 1.3 cm
ISBN-10: 0‒8091‒4346‒1
ISBN-13: 978‒0‒8091‒4346‒7

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